Xanthorrhizol: Its bioactivities and health benefits

Adelina Simamora, Kris Herawan Timotius, Heri Setiawan, Mukerrem Betul Yerer, Ratih Asmana Ningrum, Abdul Mun’im

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Xanthorrhizol (XTZ), 2-methyl-5-[(2R)-6-methylhept-5-en-2-yl]phenol is a bioactive compound predominantly isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma xanthorrhiza. Traditionally, C. xanthorrhiza, which is named temulawak in Indonesia, has been widely used as a remedy for different ailments, such as infection, jaundice, stomachache, bloody stools, fatigue, rheumatism, and lack of appetite. In vitro and in vivo reports have demonstrated diverse biological activities of XTZ, such as antimicrobial, antidiabetic, and anti-hyperlipidemic activities. XTZ has also been reported for protective effects on different organs, such as hepato-, neuro-, nephro-, and skin protection. These activities might be explained by its antioxidant activity and its ability to modulate the expression and activity of key modulators of inflammation such as proinflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, matrix metalloproteinases, mediators (cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase), transcription factors (nuclear factor-kappaK, and nuclear factor of activated T-cells cl)], as well as regulating different signaling pathways involved in inflammation. In this review, we focus on the current information on the biological effects of XTZ and provide insight into its mechanisms of action. This review would support the potential development of XTZ. Many traditional claims of C. xanthorrhiza necessitate scientific validations, such as its use as an energy booster. Future studies may be directed on this area to broaden future development for the compound.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)27-39
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2024


  • Bisabolene
  • Curcuma xanthorrhiza
  • inflammation
  • molecular mechanisms
  • signaling molecules


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