Xanthine Oxidase-Induced Inflammatory Responses in Respiratory Epithelial Cells: A Review in Immunopathology of COVID-19

Irandi Putra Pratomo, Dimas R. Noor, Kusmardi Kusmardi, Andriansjah Rukmana, Rafika I. Paramita, Linda Erlina, Fadilah Fadilah, Anggi Gayatri, Magna Fitriani, Tommy T.H. Purnomo, Anna Ariane, Rudi Heryanto, Aryo Tedjo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Xanthine oxidase (XO) is an enzyme that catalyzes the production of uric acid and superoxide radicals from purine bases: hypoxanthine and xanthine and is also expressed in respiratory epithelial cells. Uric acid, which is also considered a danger associated molecule pattern (DAMP), could trigger a series of inflammatory responses by activating the inflammasome complex path and NF-B within the endothelial cells and by inducing proinflammatory cytokine release. Concurrently, XO also converts the superoxide radicals into hydroxyl radicals that further induce inflammatory responses. These conditions will ultimately sum up a hyperinflammation condition commonly dubbed as cytokine storm syndrome (CSS). The expression of proinflammatory cytokines and neutrophil chemokines may be reduced by XO inhibitor, as observed in human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV)-infected A549 cells. Our review emphasizes that XO may have an essential role as an anti-inflammation therapy for respiratory viral infection, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Original languageEnglish
Article number1653392
JournalInternational Journal of Inflammation
Volume2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021

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