Why do differences in provincial incomes persist in Indonesia?

Jorge Garcia Garcia, Lana Soelistianingsih

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

42 Citations (Scopus)


Despite 20 years of sustained economic growth that saw provincial GDPs rise and inequalities in per capita provincial GDPs fall, per capita income disparities among provinces persist. In this paper we present evidence that poor provinces have tended to catch up with middle- and high-income provinces, but that regions at the top and bottom of the distribution in 1975 finished in similar positions in 1993. Investments in human capital (education and health) seem to be the most effective way of increasing provincial incomes and reducing the disparities in provincial GDP per capita. The poorer provinces and rural areas can grow faster than the richer ones because they can gain the most from better health and education, as they have the highest rates of illiteracy, fertility, and infant, child and maternal mortality.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)95-120
Number of pages26
JournalBulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1998


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