What Is the Cause of Non-responders in CRT and How to Identify It?

Research output: Contribution to journalEditorial


Almost more than a decade, Cardiac Re-synchronization Therapy (CRT) has been accepted as an effective therapy for heart failure (HF) patients with reduced left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) and wide QRS complex.1 There is a plethora of evidences which show
the benefits of CRT in reduction of morbidity and mortality and improvement of quality of life.2,3 The
CRT indication has also been extended to Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD)-indicated patients
and some landmark trials have notified the superiority of CRT with defibrillator (CRT-D) over ICD alone.4-6 As the device development becomes more complicated,
it definitely raises a cost issue, especially when incorporated with ICD (CRT-D). Unfortunately, there is a significant number of patients who do not response sufficiently (non responders, NR) with average incidence of 30%7 and only 50% this
group will survive at four years after implant.
Original languageEnglish
JournalIndonesian Journal of Cardiology
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2017


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