Water-in-Oil-in-Water Nanoemulsions Containing Temulawak (Curcuma xanthorriza Roxb) and Red Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Extracts

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Hydrophobic curcumin in temulawak extract and hydrophilic betacyanin in red dragon fruit extract are high-value bioactive compounds with extensive applications in functional food. In this study, these extracts were encapsulated in water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) nanoemulsions as a delivery system using a two-step high-energy emulsification method. PGPR and Span 20 were used as lipophilic emulsifiers for the primary w/o emulsion. The most stable w/o/w formulation with the least oil phase separation of 5% v/v consisted of w/o emulsion (15% w/w) and Tween 80 (1.5% w/w) as hydrophilic emulsifier. The formulation was characterized by a 189-nm mean droplet diameter, 0.16 polydispersity index, and -32 mV zeta potential. The freeze-thaw stability may be attributed to the combination of low w/o emulsion content and high Tween 80 concentration in the outer water phase of the w/o/w nanoemulsions used in this study. The IC50 values of the nanoemulsion and the red dragon fruit extract were similar. It means that the higher concentration of curcumin in the nanoemulsions and the lower IC50 value of temulawak extract ensured sufficient antioxidant activities of the w/o/w nanoemulsions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number196
JournalMolecules (Basel, Switzerland)
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jan 2021


  • betacyanin
  • curcumin
  • red dragon fruit
  • temulawak
  • w/o/w nanoemulsion


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