Water and Beverages Intake Among Workers Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic in Indonesia

Diana Sunardi, Dian Novita Chandra, Bernie Endyarni Medise, Nurul Ratna Mutu Manikam, Dewi Friska, Wiji Lestari, Putri Novia Choiri Insani

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3 Citations (Scopus)


As the COVID-19 pandemic hit worldwide in the early 2020, people were urged to alter their behavior to prevent disease spread, thus, led to change water intake. This study aimed to analyze water and beverage intake among health workers and general workers during COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. This study was a comparative descriptive study where the participants were 20–45-year-old health workers and general workers in Indonesia. Data collected included demographic, water and beverage intake, physical activity, nutrient intake, and body weight and height. All data collection was obtained online using self-reported questionnaire. Water intake data was collected for 7 days consecutively using a 7-day fluid record. There were 246 participants comprised of 102 (41.5%) general workers and 144 (58.5%) health workers who were analyzed in this study. All participants showed barely adequate intake of daily total fluid 1,882 (1,473–2,433) ml/day. Total fluid intake among general workers was 1,759 (1,447–2,396) ml/day, whereas in health workers it was slightly higher 1,939 (1,516–2,446) ml/day (p-value = 0.378). Among health workers who were highly exposed to patients with COVID-19 showed the highest percentage in drinking water adequately (20 participants, 60.6%) compared to health workers who worked under moderate (29 participants, 48.3%) and low (24 participants, 47.2%) level of exposure to patients with COVID-19. In conclusion, workers need to improve their daily fluid intake. This study also showed better behavior of water consumption among health workers compared to general workers despite of their strict personal protection equipment during working hour.

Original languageEnglish
Article number832641
JournalFrontiers in Nutrition
Publication statusPublished - 14 Mar 2022


  • fluid intake
  • general workers
  • health workers
  • hydration
  • personal protective equipment


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