Vortex Ring Formation Characteristics in Synthetic Jet due to Changes of Excitation Frequency in the 1/2-Ball Cavity Actuator

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A jet flow that contains vortex ring has a large energy compared to a regular jet. As one of the causes of the aerodynamic drag to the vehicle, the flow separation that occurs behind the bluff body must be controlled, so that aerodynamic drag can be significantly reduced. This study is a basic work on the development of turbulent flow separation control for aerodynamic purpose, especially in the design of the vehicle body. The main objective of this study is to analyze the performance of the synthetic jet (SJA) as one of flow control tool to reduce separation area. To get the maximum performance of the synthetic jet actuator, the research starts by characterizing the actuator. Characterization of 1/2 ball-shaped cavity is done with excitation frequency changes and orifice diameter of 3, 5 and 8 mm. The study was conducted using computational and experimental methods. The experimental data was obtained by testing synthetic jet actuator with providing sinusoidal signal to drive the membrane and at the orifice end a hotwire probe that is set and plugged into a CTA (Constant Temperature Anemometry) to obtain the speed velocity of the exhaust jet. Computational methods used a commercial CFD software (FLUENT 6.3) with a Reynolds Stress Model as a model of turbulence. Each of these calculations or measurements was conducted under the same conditions. The research result is displayed in frequency testing curve to get the maximum velocity of the jet stream. The results are further indicative of the synthetic jet actuator capability to generate vortex rings. In the experimental results, the determination of ring vortex formation taken from the calculation of the flow velocity, while the CFD simulations, the formation of vortex rings can be seen from the visualization of the flow contour. Vortex ring formed from this 1/2 -ball cavity, occurred at 3 mm and 5 mm orifice diameter, while the 8 mm orifice diameter cavity cannot form a ring vortex.

Original languageEnglish
Article number012010
JournalJournal of Physics: Conference Series
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 11 Apr 2017
Event15th Asian Congress of Fluid Mechanics, ACFM 2016 - Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia
Duration: 21 Nov 201623 Nov 2016


  • bluff body
  • reversed Ahmed body
  • synthetic jet actuators
  • vortex ring


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