Vitamin B3 (niacin), B6, C, and iron intake are associated with the free androgen index, especially in normoandrogenic polycystic ovary syndrome

Andon Hestiantoro, Brilliant Putri Kusuma Astuti, Ericko Ongko Joyo, Ririn Rahmala Febri, Vita Silvana, Raden Muharam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: Nutritional intake is one of the most common environmental risk factors for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) because it is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between micronutrient intake and androgen levels associated with PCOS. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in patients with PCOS divided into two groups, normoandrogenic (NA) and hyperandrogenic (HA), and healthy controls. Dietary intake assessment was performed using a modified 38-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Bivariate, correlation, and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the association between study variables. Results: There were 79 patients with PCOS, of whom 50 were NA and 29 were HA. There were 66 subjects in the healthy control group. The baseline characteristics in all groups were similar, except for body mass index and hormonal profile which were elevated in the HA group compared to the other groups. There was a significant negative correlation between the free androgen index (FAI) and intake of vitamin B1, vitamin B2, niacin, vitamin B6, calcium, and iron in the NA group, while this association was absent in the HA group. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that the intake of vitamin B6, vitamin C, niacin, and iron had a significant effect on the FAI. Conclusion: There is an effect of micronutrient intake on androgen levels in women with PCOS. The association was more significant in NA PCOS than in the HA PCOS groups. These findings suggest an association between micronutrients, androgens and PCOS at a systemic level.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)130-136
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the Turkish German Gynecology Association
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022


  • Androgens
  • hyperandrogenism
  • micronutrients
  • polycystic ovary syndrome


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