OBJECTIVES: Lipid accumulation product (LAP) index and Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI) are simple calculations to measure fat accumulation and visceral fat respectively. We aim to study the use of LAP index and VAI as diagnostic parameter and predictor of T2DM. METHODS: We analysed the baseline and longitudinal data from the Indonesian Ministry of Health Cohort Study of Non-communicable Diseases Risk Factors in West Java, comprising 846 men and 2437 women aged 25-65 years. At baseline, the odds ratio for the diagnosis of prediabetes and T2DM among subjects with high LAP Index and VAI was analysed using logistic regression analysis. In the longitudinal analysis, LAP index and VAI as predictor of prediabetes and T2DM was analysed with cox regression analysis. RESULT: Worsening glycemia status was associated with an increased LAP index and VAI (p < 0.001). Subjects with high VAI had an increased OR of having T2DM in both men [OR, 95%CI, 2.29(1.15-4.56), p = 0.018] and women [1.95(1.49-2.54), p < 0.001)]. Association of high LAP with T2DM was found only in women [OR, 95%CI, 2.11(1.16-1.52), p < 0.001]. In terms of T2DM prediction, only women [RR, 95% CI, 2.59 (1.05-6.39), p = 0.038)], with high VAI had an increased risk of T2DM in the future. High LAP index was not associated with an in increased risk of T2DM in the future in both sexes. CONCLUSION: High LAP index was associated with an increased risk of T2DM diagnosis in women but it could not predict the development of T2DM. High VAI was associated with an increased risk of T2DM diagnosis in both sexes, however, it could only predict the development of T2DM in women.