Virtual screening of Indonesian herbal compounds as COVID-19 supportive therapy: machine learning and pharmacophore modeling approaches

Linda Erlina, Rafika Indah Paramita, Wisnu Ananta Kusuma, Fadilah Fadilah, Aryo Tedjo, Irandi Putra Pratomo, Nabila Sekar Ramadhanti, Ahmad Kamal Nasution, Fadhlal Khaliq Surado, Aries Fitriawan, Khaerunissa Anbar Istiadi, Arry Yanuar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: The number of COVID-19 cases continues to grow in Indonesia. This phenomenon motivates researchers to find alternative drugs that function for prevention or treatment. Due to the rich biodiversity of Indonesian medicinal plants, one alternative is to examine the potential of herbal medicines to support COVID therapy. This study aims to identify potential compound candidates in Indonesian herbal using a machine learning and pharmacophore modeling approaches. Methods: We used three classification methods that had different decision-making processes: support vector machine (SVM), multilayer perceptron (MLP), and random forest (RF). For the pharmacophore modeling approach, we performed a structure-based analysis on the 3D structure of the main protease SARS-CoV-2 (3CLPro) and repurposed SARS, MERS, and SARS-CoV-2 drugs identified from the literature as datasets in the ligand-based method. Lastly, we used molecular docking to analyze the interactions between the 3CLpro and 14 hit compounds from the Indonesian Herbal Database (HerbalDB), with lopinavir as a positive control. Results: From the molecular docking analysis, we found six potential compounds that may act as the main proteases of the SARS-CoV-2 inhibitor: hesperidin, kaempferol-3,4'-di-O-methyl ether (Ermanin); myricetin-3-glucoside, peonidin 3-(4’-arabinosylglucoside); quercetin 3-(2G-rhamnosylrutinoside); and rhamnetin 3-mannosyl-(1-2)-alloside. Conclusions: Our layered virtual screening with machine learning and pharmacophore modeling approaches provided a more objective and optimal virtual screening and avoided subjective decision making of the results. Herbal compounds from the screening, i.e. hesperidin, kaempferol-3,4'-di-O-methyl ether (Ermanin); myricetin-3-glucoside, peonidin 3-(4’-arabinosylglucoside); quercetin 3-(2G-rhamnosylrutinoside); and rhamnetin 3-mannosyl-(1-2)-alloside are potential antiviral candidates for SARS-CoV-2. Moringa oleifera and Psidium guajava that consist of those compounds, could be an alternative option as COVID-19 herbal preventions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number207
JournalBMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies
Volume22
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022

Keywords

  • 3CLPro
  • COVID-19
  • Indonesian Herbal Compounds
  • Machine Learning
  • Molecular Docking
  • Pharmacophore Modeling
  • SARS-CoV-2

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