Validity and reliability test of the brief symptom rating scale 5 (BSRS-5) questionnaire in Indonesian version as an assessment tool for psychological disorders in Indonesia

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Background: Psychological disorders in workers is associated with physical health problems and decreased work productivity costing the impact of workplace accidents. We can minimize these problems by introducing screening programs with a simple screening tool for psychological disorders. One of the questionnaires used in several countries to assess psychological disorders is the Brief Symptom Rating Scale - 5 (BSRS-5). Thus, this study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the Brief Symptom Rating Scale - 5 (BSRS-5) in the Indonesian version. Methods: The BSRS-5 was translated into a local language (Bahasa), and experts judgment in the forward and backward translation process. What collected BSRS-5 data in a primary health care setting on 64 respondents. Internal reliability was tested using Cronbach's alpha. Factorial validity was done using exploratory factor analysis to investigate whether BSRS-5 items properly measure the underlying dimensions of psychological disorders. External (criterion) validity was analysed by looking at the relationship between BSRS-5 and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale − 21 (DASS-21), using the coefficient correlation. Results: The BSRS-5 questionnaire was produced from transcultural validation using the ISPOR method. The results of the construct validity test for all questions between (0.634–0.781) with a significance level < 0.05. The factor analysis values for all statements > 0.3 were all items having Eigenvalues > 1 yielded into one factor. The instrument performed well in detecting common psychological disorders. The BSRS-5 had good internal reliability (α = 0.770). The external validity test results with DASS-21 showed that BSRS-5 correlated with the DASS-21 dimensions of depression and stress with correlation values of 0.397 and 0.399. In opposition to correlated BSRS-5 with the dimension of anxiety in DASS-21 showed no correlation with a correlation value of 0.237. Therefore, another gold standard questionnaire is required to evaluate psychological distress based on each item in BSRS-5. Conclusion: The BSRS-5 is a satisfactory screening tool for identifying common psychological disorders such as Insomnia, Anxiety, Depression, Hostility, and Inferiority in the community. The absence of correlation with anxiety in this assessment tool needs another gold standard questionnaire, or professional assistance is required for further evaluation to follow up on psychological disorders.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103676
JournalAsian Journal of Psychiatry
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2023


  • Brief Symptom Rating Scale - 5
  • Factor Analysis
  • Psychological disorders
  • Reliability
  • Validity


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