Validation for 2D/3D registration I: A new gold standard data set

S. A. Pawiro, P. Markelj, F. Pernuš, C. Gendrin, M. Figl, C. Weber, F. Kainberger, I. Nöbauer-Huhmann, H. Bergmeister, M. Stock, D. Georg, H. Bergmann, W. Birkfellner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: In this article, the authors propose a new gold standard data set for the validation of two-dimensional/three-dimensional (2D/3D) and 3D/3D image registration algorithms. Methods: A gold standard data set was produced using a fresh cadaver pig head with attached fiducial markers. The authors used several imaging modalities common in diagnostic imaging or radiotherapy, which include 64-slice computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging using Tl, T2, and proton density sequences, and cone beam CT imaging data. Radiographic data were acquired using kilovoltage and megavoltage imaging techniques. The image information reflects both anatomy and reliable fiducial marker information and improves over existing data sets by the level of anatomical detail, image data quality, and soft-tissue content. The markers on the 3D and 2D image data were segmented using ANALYZE 10.0 (AnalyzeDirect, Inc., Kansas City, KN) and an in-house software. Results: The projection distance errors and the expected target registration errors over all the image data sets were found to be less than 2.71 and 1.88 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The gold standard data set, obtained with state-of-the-art imaging technology, has the potential to improve the validation of 2D/3D and 3D/3D registration algorithms for image guided therapy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1481-1490
Number of pages10
JournalMedical Physics
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2011


  • gold standard
  • image guidance
  • image registration
  • radiotherapy


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