Urinary Cadmium and Albumin Levels among Resident Living Close to Dumpsite in the Deli serdang District of Indonesia

Fajrin Nur Azizah, Yulia Khairani Ashar, Haeranah Ahmad, Zakianis, Ririn Arminsih Wulandari

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


Albuminuria is a pathological condition wherein the protein albumin is present in urine. Albumin levels can be used as biomarker of kidney damage caused by cadmium (Cd). Many factors influence albuminuria, including environmental conditions, lifestylerelated factors, and sociodemographic characteristics. This study examined the association of sociodemographic characteristics with both urinary Cd levels and urinary albumin levels among rural residents living close to a dumpsite in Namo Bintang village. This study used a cross-sectional design, and the study population consisted of adult men and women (n = 99) who were selected using the stratified random sampling method based on the distance from their homes to the landfill. The data were analyzed using Spearman’s Rho and Mann–Whitney tests. Urinary albumin was determined using the urinary albumin (µg)/creatinine (mg) ratio, and urinary Cd levels were normalized to Cd (µg)/creatinine (g). Urinary albumin was measured by spectrophotometric and enzymatic analyses. Urinary Cd levels were determined using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer in spot urine sampled at baseline. The characteristics of the participants, such as age, body mass index (BMI), sex, Cd exposure, occupation, and smoking status, were obtained through a direct interview using a questionnaire. The average urinary albumin level was 8.69 ± 14.55 µg/mg creatinine, and the average urinary Cd level was 35.1 ± 32.65 µg/g creatinine. Women had a higher risk than men of having albumin in their urine, pointing to an association between sex and urinary albumin levels (p = 0.041). Based on the findings of this study, local government officials should advise rural residents in dumpsite areas not to use well water for drinking and to check the water quality regularly to prevent urinary disease.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 2018
EventThe 2nd International Meeting of Public Health 2016 (IMOPH)Â - ID, Depok, Indonesia
Duration: 1 Jan 2018 → …


ConferenceThe 2nd International Meeting of Public Health 2016 (IMOPH)Â
Period1/01/18 → …


  • Albuminuria, Urinary Cadmium, Dumpsite.


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