Urban-Rural Dimension of Falls and Associated Risk Factors among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in West Java, Indonesia

Susiana Nugraha, Sabarinah, Indri Hapsari Susilowati, Tri Budi W. Rahardjo

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4 Citations (Scopus)


Falls are one of the common problems among older adults; it is estimated that 684,000 fatal cases of falls occur every year. Furthermore, falls constitute one of the leading causes of mortality due to accidental injury. This study aims to identify the risk factors for falls in the older adults who live in the community, according to the dimensions of the living area: in urban and rural. The proportional sampling method was used to identify the rural and urban areas in West Java Prefecture; meanwhile, the incidence of fall in the last 12 months was selected as the outcome variable. Furthermore, sociodemographic background, chronic medical condition, fear of falling, visual and hearing impairments, Activity of Daily Living (ADL), Barthel index, physical performance (Short Performance Physical Battery (SPPB)), and living environment were analyzed to identify the risk factors that contribute to the incidence of falls. A total of 611 older adults participated in this study: 62% of them are living in rural area and 38% of them are living urban areas. More than 70% of study participants were aged 60-69 years, while 73% were females. There is no significant difference in fall prevalence in rural (16.5%) and urban (10.7%) areas (p value = 0.228). Furthermore, the multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the male gender (OR = 0.29, 95%CI [0.09-0.88]), chronic illness (OR = 3.25, 95%CI [1.24-8.53]), and visual impairment (OR = 3.6, 95%CI [1.52-8.54]) were associated with fall among older adults in urban areas. Meanwhile, visual impairment (OR = 1.81, 95%CI [1.03-3.18]) and living environment (OR = 3.36, 95% CI [1.14-9.93]) were significantly associated with falls in rural areas. Based on the associated risk factors identified in this study, a different approach is needed to reduce the falling risk among older adults in urban and rural areas in Indonesia.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8638170
JournalJournal of Aging Research
Publication statusPublished - 2021


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