Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Xanthorrhizol from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. Rhizomes by Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents: Optimization, Antioxidant Activity, and Toxicity Profiles

Adelina Simamora, Kris Herawan Timotius, Heri Setiawan, Febrina Amelia Saputri, Chinthia Rahadi Putri, Dewi Aryani, Ratih Asmana Ningrum, Abdul Mun'im

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Xanthorrhizol, an important marker of Curcuma xanthorrhiza, has been recognized for its different pharmacological activities. A green strategy for selective xanthorrhizol extraction is required. Herein, natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs) based on glucose and organic acids (lactic acid, malic acid, and citric acid) were screened for the extraction of xanthorrhizol from Curcuma xanthorrhiza. Ultrasound-assisted extraction using glucose/lactic acid (1:3) (GluLA) gave the best yield of xanthorrhizol. The response surface methodology with a Box-Behnken Design was used to optimize the interacting variables of water content, solid-to-liquid (S/L) ratio, and extraction to optimize the extraction. The optimum conditions of 30% water content in GluLA, 1/15 g/mL (S/L), and a 20 min extraction time yielded selective xanthorrhizol extraction (17.62 mg/g) over curcuminoids (6.64 mg/g). This study indicates the protective effect of GluLA and GluLA extracts against oxidation-induced DNA damage, which was comparable with those obtained for ethanol extract. In addition, the stability of the xanthorrhizol extract over 90 days was revealed when stored at -20 and 4 °C. The FTIR and NMR spectra confirmed the hydrogen bond formation in GluLA. Our study reported, for the first time, the feasibility of using glucose/lactic acid (1:3, 30% water v/v) for the sustainable extraction of xanthorrhizol.

Original languageEnglish
JournalMolecules (Basel, Switzerland)
Volume29
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2024

Keywords

  • DNA protection activity
  • NADES
  • NOESY
  • response surface methodology
  • scanning electron microscopy
  • stability
  • xanthorrhizol

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