Two tetrahydroxyterpenoids and a flavonoid from Xylocarpus moluccensis M.Roem. and their α-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant capacity

Berna Elya, Fitri S. Budiarso, Muhammad Hanafi, Maria A. Gani, Pekik W. Prasetyaningrum

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Context: Scientific verification of the anti-hyperglycemic potential of Kayu sarampa (Xylocarpus moluccensis), which is popularly used for diabetic medication in North Sulawesi, Indonesia, is strongly important to conduct to avoid inappropriate medication that might cause worse conditions. Aims: To investigate the anti-hyperglycemic potential of X. moluccensis stem bark ethyl acetate extract and isolated compounds through the α-glucosidase enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant capacity determination. Methods: The active compound was isolated from ethyl acetate extract of X. moluccensis stem bark. The structures of those compounds were elucidated by infrared spectroscopy, liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies. To discover the anti-hyperglycemic potency, α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition assay, antioxidant assay (DPPH and FRAP), and in silico study were performed. Results: Three isolated compounds were obtained and characterized as two tetrahydroxyterpenoids compounds, namely xyloccensin E (1) and ruageanin D (2), and one flavonoid compound, namely 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahidroxyflavan (catechin) (3). Compounds 1 and 3 inhibited the α-glucosidase enzyme with IC50 values of 118.60 and 55.19 µg/mL, respectively, with a competitive inhibition mechanism. This is also in line with in silico findings, and both compounds showed good binding affinity of α-glucosidase protein, which indicated their anti-hyperglycemic activity potential by inhibiting α-glucosidase enzyme. Moreover, compounds 1 and 3 showed antioxidant capacity through the DPPH method with an IC50 value of 54.69 and 2.87 µg/mL. In addition, 100 µg/mL of compounds 1 and 3 also exhibited antioxidant capacity through the FRAP method with values of 66.35 and 213.82 µmol Fe2+/g, respectively. Conclusions: The X. moluccensis stem bark ethyl acetate extract, and isolated compounds exhibit α-glucosidase enzyme inhibitory activity and antioxidant capacity, which confirms its potency as an alternative medication for hyperglycemia issues.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)454-476
Number of pages23
JournalJournal of Pharmacy and Pharmacognosy Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • anti-hyperglycemia
  • antioxidant
  • natural products
  • α-glucosidase


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