Tuning Window Size to Improve the Accuracy of Battery State-of-Charge Estimations Due to Battery Cycle Addition

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The primary indicator of battery level in a battery management system (BMS) is the state of charge, which plays a crucial role in enhancing safety in terms of energy transfer. Accurate measurement of SoC is essential to guaranteeing battery safety, avoiding hazardous scenarios, and enhancing the performance of the battery. To improve SoC accuracy, first-order and second-order adaptive extended Kalman filtering (AEKF) are the best choices, as they have less computational cost and are more robust in uncertain circumstances. The impact on SoC estimation accuracy of increasing the cycle and its interaction with the size of the tuning window was evaluated using both models. The research results show that tuning the window size ((Formula presented.)) greatly affects the accuracy of SoC estimation in both methods. (Formula presented.) provides a quick response detection measurement and adjusts the estimation’s character with the actual value. The results indicate that the precision of SoC improves as the value of M decreases. In addition, the application of first-order AEKF has practical advantages because it does not require pre-processing steps to determine polarization resistance and polarization capacity, while second-order AEKF has better capabilities in terms of SoC estimation. The robustness of the two techniques was also evaluated by administering various initial SoCs. The examination findings demonstrate that the estimated trajectory can approximate the actual trajectory of the SoC.

Original languageEnglish
Article number307
JournalWorld Electric Vehicle Journal
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2023


  • AEKF
  • cycle number
  • first order
  • second order
  • SoC estimation
  • window size


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