Translation, Validity, and Reliability of the Indonesian Version of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament–Return to Sport After Injury Scale

Romy Deviandri, Hugo C. van der Veen, Andri M.T. Lubis, Maarten J. Postma, Inge van den Akker-Scheek

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: The Anterior Cruciate Ligament–Return to Sport After Injury (ACL-RSI) scale measures athletes’ emotion, confidence, and risk appraisal when returning to sports after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and/or ACL reconstruction (ACLR). Purpose: To translate the ACL-RSI into the Indonesian language and to assess its validity and reliability in Indonesian-speaking patients after ACLR. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods: After a forward-and-backward translation procedure, the validity and reliability of the Indonesian version of the ACL-RSI (I-ACL-RSI) were investigated. Patients who had undergone ACLR at a single hospital were asked to complete 4 questionnaires: I-ACL-RSI, Injury–Psychological Readiness to Return to Sport, Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia, and International Knee Documentation Committee. After a 2-week interval, patients were asked to complete the I-ACL-RSI a second time. Following the COSMIN reporting guidelines (Consensus-Based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments), we determined construct validity using hypothesis testing, as well as test-retest reliability, internal consistency, floor and ceiling effects, and measurement error. Results: Of 200 eligible patients, 102 (51%) were included in the analysis. All predefined hypotheses on correlations between the I-ACL-RSI and the other questionnaires were confirmed, indicating good construct validity. An intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.90 (2-way random, type agreement) was found for the first and second I-ACL-RSI scores, indicating good test-retest reliability. A Cronbach α of 0.95 indicated good internal consistency, and no floor or ceiling effects were found. The standard error of measurement was 3.9, with the minimal detectable change calculated as 10.9 points at the individual level and 1.1 points at the group level. Conclusion: Based on the study findings, the I-ACL-RSI can be considered a valid and reliable questionnaire for Indonesian-speaking patients after ACL injury and/or ACLR.

Original languageEnglish
JournalOrthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2023


  • ACL injuries
  • Indonesian translation
  • PROM
  • questionnaire


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