Transferability of a EUnetHTA Relative Effectiveness Assessment (REA) to Low- and Middle-income Countries Setting

T. I.Armina Padmasawitri, Ahmad Fuady

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


In 2020, EUnetHTA published a relative effectiveness analysis (REA) of Pretomanid in combination with Bedaquiline and Linezolid (BpaL) for the treatment of extensively drugresistant (XDR) or treatment-intolerant or non-responsive multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) (REA PTJA14). This REA may have a significant value for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) outside Europe, particularly those with a high burden of drug-resistant TB. This commentary focuses on whether the REA PTJA14 can be transferred and to what extent a REA can be translated to LMICs context outside Europe. We found that the assessments on the clinical effectiveness and risks of bias reported in REA PTJA14 are useful for LMICs outside Europe. The highly standardised management of TB will support the applicability of the REA to LMICs outside of Europe. Transferring this REA can reduce workload and efficiently use limited resources to conduct health technology assessment (HTA). However, the transfer should consider several critical issues, including variations in health system delivery and clinical practice and setting-specific constraints. In the TB context, the differences in the current standard treatment for XDR or non-responsive MDR TB, resources availability for drug-resistant TB management, and how healthcare is delivered in the countries can complicate the applicability of the REA PTJA14. Given that LMICs have limitations in doing HTA, it is now critical to develop standard guidelines for transferring REA or other HTA results from high-income countries or other LMICs to maximise the benefits of the REA for LMICs outside Europe.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere42
JournalInternational Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 28 Apr 2022


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