Tracing the energy footprints of Indonesian manufacturing industry

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4 Citations (Scopus)


The low energy efficiency is the source of the large energy consumption issue and the rapid growth of energy demand in the manufacturing industry sector in Indonesia. The driving forces behind the low energy efficiency situation in this sector are both economic and efficiency factors. The objective of this study is to generate the map of the energy flow in the manufacturing industry sector to investigate the energy utilization in the industrial process. The data sample that represents 80% of energy consumption in the manufacturing sector is used to generate this map. The generated map shows the heating system is the largest energy consumer among all energy equipment and as the primary source of the energy losses. Additionally, we found the industry groups such as sugar, cement, pulp and paper, and textile use enormous amounts of energy as their source for the heating system; meanwhile, the industries such as basic chemical, metal, and textile are the largest electricity consumers for their motor-driven machinery. The energy flow analysis together with the comparison of the Specific Energy Consumption shows the areas that should be the focus for further energy conservation measures. Recommended measures are also discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)394-405
Number of pages12
JournalEnergy Science and Engineering
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2016


  • Efficiency energy
  • Sankey diagram
  • energy flows
  • energy mapping
  • manufacture


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