Top management team (TMT) age diversity and firm performance: the moderating role of the effectiveness of TMT meetings

Sutarti, Akhmad Syakhroza, Vera Diyanty, Setio Anggoro Dewo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: This study aims to investigate the direct effect of directors’ age diversity, and its interaction effect with the effectiveness of TMT meetings on bank performance. Design/methodology/approach: Quantitative data were extracted from the bank’s annual reports for the six years 2011–2016. Age diversity was calculated using the coefficient of variation, and the bank’s performance was measured as return on assets and return on equity. The frequency of directors’ meetings was used as a proxy for the effectiveness of TMT meetings. Findings: Based on the hierarchical regression analysis, the results do not support the hypothesis that there is a negative influence between age diversity on performance. However, the results support the hypothesis that age diversity has a positive effect on performance because of the high effectiveness of TMT meetings. Research limitations/implications: The limitations of the study include the use of only samples of the banks registered with Bank Indonesia. The subsequent research could use cross-country bank samples. In addition, the research uses age-related diversity variables only. Therefore, further research could consider other types of diversity such as education, functional or tenure. Furthermore, this study is limited to the effectiveness of the director (TMT) meetings as the only moderating variable. Further research could improve on this by including other moderating variables. Practical implications: The findings of this study indicate that the existence of age diversity in TMT will aid bank governance if it is accompanied by effective meetings among groups of directors of varying ages. This age composition of directors will make meetings more effective as rich information for strategic decisions will be generated from different points of view because of the wide spectrum of age categories, and hence, there will be a positive impact on bank performance. Social implications: This study indicates that effective meetings of TMT groups of different ages will minimize the rise of “self-esteem”. Therefore, they will benefit the creation of a better quality relationship among TMT individuals. Accordingly, TMT within a company will have more opportunities to discuss in providing bright ideas for the company on how to innovate and create a new strategy to improve its performance. Originality/value: This study, being the first to explore the effectiveness of TMT meetings to bank performance in the contexts of directors’ age diversity, contributes to the literature in this area, and especially to the body of knowledge about companies implementing a two-tier governance system.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)486-503
Number of pages18
JournalTeam Performance Management
Issue number5-6
Publication statusPublished - 16 Aug 2021


  • Age diversity
  • Effectiveness TMT meetings
  • Performance
  • Top management team


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