Tobacco smoking and the degree of severity of the pain of temporomandibular disorders (TMD)

Karina, Laura Susanti, Ira Tanti, Roselani Widajati Luddin

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1 Citation (Scopus)


In 2016, the Tobacco Atlas reported that 66% Indonesian males were cigarette smokers. Epidemiologic studies have indicated that smoking might be associated with musculoskeletal pain. Some studies have reported that there is a relationship between cigarette smoking and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) because the pain from TMD could originate from the musculoskeletal. But this kind of study has yet to be done in Indonesia. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the relationship of cigarette smoking on pain severity in TMD patients. Fifty-four TMD patients participated in the study. They were first divided into two groups: smokers and nonsmokers. Then, the smokers were further divided into three subgroups: light, moderate, and heavy smokers. The subjects were diagnosed according to the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD) Axis I, and the TMD pain level was derived from the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). All the collected data were analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and post hoc Mann-Whitney tests. The TMD pain severity was significantly higher in smokers compared to nonsmokers, and a significant relationship was found between pain severity and the number of cigarettes smoked in a day. Smoking seems to affect TMD pain severity, so the control of smoking habits should be considered when treating TMD patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)600-607
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of International Dental and Medical Research
Issue numberSpecialissue
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Pain severity
  • Smoking
  • TMD


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