TOAST Subtypes of Ischemic Stroke and Its Risk Factors: A Hospital-Based Study at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Indonesia

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Abstract

Background and Purpose. Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, with ischemic stroke as the highest prevalent cases in Indonesia. Ischemic stroke can be classified further into five subtypes according to TOAST classification. Numerous studies have revealed that stroke risk factor has variable correlation with different stroke subtype. Currently, there is no data regarding this phenomenon in Indonesia. The aim of study is to identify characteristic of ischemic stroke subtypes and the risk factors in TOAST classification. Methods. A retrospective, cross-sectional study of patients diagnosed with ischemic stroke at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital from January till December 2016. Demographic data, ischemic stroke subtypes, risk factors, and other relevant data were documented. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was done using SPSS 23. Results. 235 recorded data patients were included. Large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) was the most prevalent stroke subtypes at 59,6%, followed with small vessel disease (SVD) at 26,7%, undetermined etiology at 9,8%, cardioembolism (CE) at 2,1%, and other determined etiology at 0,9%. Hypertension was the most common vascular risk factor. However, it was only significant in SVD (p=0,023) and undetermined etiology subtypes (p<0,001). Significant risk factor in LAA was diabetes (55%; p=0,016) while in CE subtypes was atrial fibrillation (60%;p<0,001). In multivariate analyses, hypertension (OR 3; 95% CI 1,12-8,05) was the only variable that was related to SVD while in CE it was atrial fibrillation (OR 113,5; 95% CI 13,6-946,5). Conclusion. LAA was the most common stroke ischemic subtypes. Associated risk factor in LAA was diabetes while in SVD and undetermined etiology subtypes it was hypertension. Atrial fibrillation was associated with cardioembolism.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9589831
JournalStroke Research and Treatment
Volume2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2018

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