Time-in-range and frequency of continuous glucose monitoring: Recommendations for South Asia

Jothydev Kesavadev, Anoop Misra, Banshi Saboo, Sanjay Agarwal, Aravind Sosale, Shashank R. Joshi, Akhtar Hussain, Noel Somasundaram, Abdul Basit, Pratik Choudhary, Sidartawan Soegondo

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Background and aim: The prevalence of diabetes is on its rise and South Asia bears a huge burden. Several factors such as heterogeneity in genetics, socio-economic factors, diet, and sedentary behavior contribute to the heightened risk of developing diabetes, its rapid progression, and the development of complications in this region. Even though there have been considerable advances in glucose monitoring technologies, diabetes treatments and therapeutics, glycemic control in South Asia remains suboptimal. The successful implementation of treatment interventions and metrics for the attainment of glycemic goals depends on appropriate guidelines that accord with the characteristics of the diabetes population. Method: The data were collected from studies published for more than the last ten years in the electronic databases PubMed and Google Scholar on the various challenges in the assessment and achievement of recommended TIR targets in the SA population using the keywords: Blood glucose, TIR, TAR, TBR, HbA1c, hypoglycemia, CGM, Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and diabetes. Results: The objective of this recommendation is to discuss the limitations in considering the IC-TIR Expert panel recommendations targets and to propose some modifications in the lower limit of TIR in older/high-risk population, upper limit of TAR, and flexibility in the percentage of time spent in TAR for pregnant women (GDM, T2DM) for the South Asian population. Conclusion: The review sheds insights into some of the major concerns in implementing the IC-TIR recommendations in South Asian population where the prevalence of diabetes and its complications are significantly higher and modifications to the existing guidelines for use in routine clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102345
JournalDiabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022


  • Continuous glucose monitoring
  • Diabetes
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Metrics
  • Prevalence
  • Time-in-range


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