Background: Diabetic foot is one of major complication in diabetes patients with unfavorable outcome. Survival study in outpatients is limited and factors related are inconsistent. Survival and its modifiable risk factors should be identified early since the foot at risk status to reduce amputation/mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Objective: The aims of this study were to investigate survival probability for amputation or mortality, compare different ulcer risk classification, and figure out the relation of status of ulcer risk, age, gender, diabetes duration, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1C, and LDL with amputation or mortality. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study of 487 T2DM subjects who visited internal medicine outpatient clinic in Fatmawati General Hospital since January-December 2016. Status of ulcer risk and risk factors were extracted from medical record and lower-extremity amputation or mortality was observed in 3 years from baseline. Result: Three years overall survival is 85.7% (SE 0.17). Patients with high risk for foot ulcer have survival probability of 80.2% (SE 0.027), which is lower compared to non-high risk for foot ulcer with survival probability of 91.8% (SE 0.019). Patients with high risk for foot ulcer (aHR 2.386 [95% CI 1.356-4.20]; P =.003), aged ≥60 years old (aHR 2.051 [95% CI 1.173-3.585]; P =.012), and HbA1C ≥7% (aHR 2.022 [95% CI 1.067-3.830]; P =.031) were independently associated with amputation or mortality. Conclusion: T2DM patients with high risk for foot ulcer have lower survival probability and higher risk for amputation or mortality in 3 years compared to patients with non-high risk for foot ulcer. Status of ulcer risk, age ≥60 years, and HbA1C ≥7% were associated with amputation or mortality in 3 years observation.
- diabetic foot
- ulcer risk