An investigation on the application of thermosensitive core-shell Fe3O4@PNIPAM nanogels in enhanced oil recovery was successfully performed. Here, the unique core-shell architecture was fabricated by conducting the polymerization at the surface of 3-butenoic acid-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), 1H NMR, vibration sample magnetometer (VSM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). According to the results, this core-shell structure was beneficial for achieving the desired high viscosity and low nanofluid mobility ratio at high temperatures, which is essential for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) application. The results demonstrated that the nanogels exhibited a unique temperature-dependent flow behavior due to the PNIPAM shell's ability to transform from a hydrated to a dehydrated state above its low critical solution temperature (LCST). At such conditions, the nanogels exhibited a significantly low mobility ratio (M = 0.86), resulting in an even displacement front during EOR and leads to higher oil production. Based on the result obtained from sand pack flooding, about 25.75% of an additional secondary oil recovery could be produced when the nanofluid was injected at a temperature of 45 °C. However, a further increase in the flooding temperature could result in a slight reduction in oil recovery due to the precipitation of some of the severely aggregated nanogels at high temperatures.