Thermal Comfort-Based Spatial Planning Model in Jakarta Transit-Oriented Development (TOD)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Transit-oriented development (TOD) is integrated spatial planning and transportation that enhances walkability and other green mobility. The issue of thermal comfort in walkability is a major concern in the TOD of cities in tropical climates such as Jakarta. This study aimed to model and compare microclimate conditions and thermal comfort between existing conditions and TOD spatial planning scenarios. The microclimate condition was modeled using ENVI-met, and thermal comfort was analyzed following the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) and universal thermal comfort index (UTCI). The results of microclimate modeling showed that the average minimum temperature of the current condition was lower than the TOD at 0.149 °C; meanwhile, the average maximum temperature of the current condition was higher than the TOD at 0.761 °C. Furthermore, the results of the PET and UTCI calculation between the existing land use and the TOD plan scenario showed that both the minimum and maximum PET and UTCI values of the TOD plan scenario throughout the modeling time were lower than the existing conditions. In conclusion, the urban canyon formed by the designed TOD scenario resulted in lower wind speed than the existing condition. However, this factor potentially does not impact the increase in the urban heat island effect in the TOD area since the effect of shading the area by the high-rise building lowers the temperature.

Original languageEnglish
Article number565
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2022


  • thermal comfort
  • transit-oriented development (TOD)
  • urban microclimate


Dive into the research topics of 'Thermal Comfort-Based Spatial Planning Model in Jakarta Transit-Oriented Development (TOD)'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this