The urgency in proposing the optimal obesity cutoff value in Indonesian population: A narrative review

Gaga Irawan Nugraha, Dicky L. Tahapary, Rachmad Wishnu Hidayat, Nurul Ratna M. Manikam, Mas Rizky A.A. Syamsunarno, Farid Kurniawan, Errawan R. Wiradisuria, Dwi Yuniati Daulay, Dante Saksono Harbuwono, Sidartawan Soegondo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


In developing nations such as Indonesia, obesity and central obesity have emerged as major public health issues. Many studies have revealed that morbidity and death from obesity-related diseases are already significant in some "Asian" communities at low body mass index (BMI) levels. A recent study showed that the obesity prevalence in Indonesia is underestimated when using the current BMI cutoff (obese ≥ 27.0). Indonesia faced an increase in obesity-related chronic diseases despite having a lower obesity prevalence than developed countries, which may be explained by the underestimation of obesity levels in Indonesia. This creates a huge global health problem, as well as an economic burden. Another recent study on the Indonesian population depicted the new proposed cutoff of waist circumference (WC), which is lower than the World Health Organization (WHO) standard for detecting the early detection of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), one of the comorbidities and a strong correlation with obesity. An analysis of 58 studies in 2021 that included Indonesian adult subjects revealed enormous differences and ambiguities in defining obesity cutoffs values among Indonesian researchers. Additionally, we advocate adding the Edmonton Obesity Staging System (EOSS) staging to the anthropometric classification for a better clinical evaluation of obesity. Considering the urgency of obesity determination in Indonesia for clinical application and study purposes, this review highlights the need to revise the optimal cutoff value for obesity to warrant early prevention and control of diabetes complications.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere32256
JournalMedicine (United States)
Issue number49
Publication statusPublished - 9 Dec 2022


  • body mass index
  • cutoff
  • Indonesia
  • obesity
  • staging


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