Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder caused by an increase in insulin resistance, a decrease in insulin production, or both of them, resulting in a high level of blood glucose or hyper-glycemia. An uncontrolled state of DM may cause complications, namely skin disorder. One or more skin disorders are found amongst 74% of T2DM patients, with the highest percentage is dry skin (47%), followed by infection (10%), diabetic hand (5%), hair loss and diabetic dermopathy (each 4%). In DM, the state of hyperglycemia and production of advanced glycaemic end-products (AGEs) profoundly impact skin changes. In the pathological pathway, AGEs induce oxidative stress and inflammation. Nonetheless, AGEs level is higher in T2DM patients compared to non-T2DM people. This is caused by hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. Binding between AGEs and receptor of AGEs (RAGE) promotes pathway of oxidative stress and inflammation cascade via mi-togen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), nuclear factor-k-light-chain-enhancer of activated β cells (NF-kβ), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 2 (VCAM-2) pathway which fur-therly effectuates DM complication including skin disorders.
- Advanced glycation end-products
- diabetes mellitus
- oxidative stress