The Regional And Referral Compliance Of Online Healthcare Systems By Indonesia National Health Insurance Agency And Health-Seeking Behavior In Indonesia

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10 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: Whether the provision of online health care referral systems by the Indonesia National Health Insurance Agency has ensured healthcare referral compliance raises much concern due to the continuing deficit. This study examines the pattern of healthcare referral process, regional and referral compliance from 2015 to 2016. To provide comprehensive analysis on how people seek treatment, this study also aims to understand health-seeking behavior in Indonesia, the utilization of alternative treatment, and health information–seeking behavior on social media. Method: The data come from three data files, namely the National Health Insurance membership master data, the First Level Health Facilities transaction data and the Advanced Referral Health Facilities transaction data of 1,697,452 individuals. The regional compliance applies a logit regression model, while referral compliance applies descriptive statistics of the referral pathway. This study also follows a quantitative approach using an online questionnaire, with 463 respondents who have National Health Insurance which applies an ordered logit model. Result: We found that several demographic variables and regional health facility availability affect regional compliance. Moreover, we found 19.3% of the transactions did not comply with the prescribed referral sequence. The prescribed referral sequence was mostly followed for patients with malignant diseases. We also found men who perceive that their health condition is healthy will less likely seek health services compared to women. Further, the tendency of alternative treatment increases health-seeking behavior, and the tendency of seeking health information on social media increases the frequency seeking health services. Conclusion: We recommend the prescribed referral sequence to be re-evaluated especially for patients with malignant disease; the referral process should not be based on hospital classes but on the competency of the healthcare facility which may indirectly address the deficit issue. It is imperative that the government evaluate health promotion approaches to men and women, both direct and indirect through their significant others

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere08068
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021


  • Alternative treatment
  • Health services
  • Health-seeking behavior
  • Indonesia
  • National health insurance
  • Referral compliance
  • Referrals
  • Social media


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