The importance of targeting intracrinology in prostate cancer management

Agus Rizal A.H. Hamid, William Tendi, Saras Serani Sesari, Chaidir A. Mochtar, Rainy Umbas, Gerald Verhaegh, Jack A. Schalken

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Accumulating evidence has shown that intracrinology in prostate cancer (PCa) has a pivotal role in survival of cancer cell. PCa cells are able to produce androgens from different androgen precursors, such as dehydroepiandrosterone, thereby maintaining androgen receptor signaling. Several drugs have been developed that target intracrinology, some of which are now being used as standard treatment for the so-called castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. Recently, the US FDA approval has changed the indication of drugs targeting intracrinology, e.g., abiraterone and enzalutamide where it evolved from post-chemotherapy CRPC to hormone-naive metastatic PCa cases. This approval raises question whether those drugs can also be used as the first-line treatment in localized stage PCa cases. In addition, development of additional drugs targeting major components of intracrinology is ongoing. Application of these new drugs and administration of combinations of existing drugs will ultimately lead to an increase in the efficacy of such treatments as well as to reduce the toxicity of the therapy and to prevent the risk of resistance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)751-757
Number of pages7
JournalWorld Journal of Urology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2019


  • Abiraterone
  • Androgen deprivation therapy
  • Enzalutamide
  • Intracrinology
  • Prostate cancer


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