The impact of residual ridge morphology on the masticatory performance of complete denture wearers

M. T. Sta Maria, Yoko Hasegawa, Pinta Marito, Tasuku Yoshimoto, Simonne Salazar, Kazuhiro Hori, Takahiro Ono

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Statement of the problem: Morphology of the residual ridge (RR) is expected to influence the masticatory performance (MP) of complete denture (CD) patients, but considerable details of this relationship are unknown. Purpose: We aimed to investigate the association between the objective MP and RR morphology of CD wearers and other contributory factors affecting their MP. Materials and methods: Sixty-five patients with well-fitting upper and lower CDs with no complaints of pain were enrolled. The objective MP was measured using test gummy jelly and a fully automated measuring device. The RR form was divided into U-type, V-type, I-intermediate, and F-Flat, then combinations of upper and lower RR forms (combined RR) were classified. The height was measured using CD's denture basal surface replicas, while occlusal contact of CDs was assessed using a tooth contact analysis system. The relationship between surveyed factors and MP was evaluated using Spearman's rank correlation, Kruskal-Wallis test, generalized linear regression, and analysis of covariance. Results: Participants with F–F and V–F combined RR forms had the lowest MP, while those with U–U and U–I forms had the highest MP, regardless of RR height. Participants with low RR height had the lowest MP, and those with high RR height had the highest MP, regardless of RR form. The analysis of covariance revealed that mandibular RR height, combined RR forms, and total occlusal contact area significantly affected the MP. Conclusions: Our findings confirmed that the mandibular RR height, RR form combinations, and occlusal contact influence the MP of CD wearers. Clinical Implications: The MP of CD wearers varied, depending on the height and form of the RR, as well as the occlusal contact area of the CDs. The results of this manuscript show that the morphology of the denture bearing area and the occlusion of the CDs are essential factors in predicting the treatment outcome of CD wearers. This allows the clinician to fabricate a complete denture with the denture basal surfaces adjusted and occlusion provided according to the patient. CD patients can be educated on how to chew to improve MP based on their own RR morphology.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere16238
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2023


  • Complete dentures
  • Gummy jelly
  • Mastication
  • Masticatory performance
  • Residual ridge


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