The Etiology of Kidney Failure in Indonesia: A Multicenter Study in Tertiary-Care Centers in Jakarta

Ni Made Hustrini, Endang Susalit, Aida Lydia, Maruhum Bonar H. Marbun, Muhammad Syafiq, Yassir, Johanes Sarwono, Elizabeth Yasmine Wardoyo, Jonny, Suhardjono, Rizki Y. Pradwipa, Anitasari Nugraheni, Merel Van Diepen, Joris I. Rotmans

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Despite a large number of patients requiring dialysis, the etiology of kidney failure is poorly documented in Indonesia. With the aim to reduce the disease burden, it is essential to obtain more insight in the etiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Objective(s): In the present study, we attempted to investigate the primary renal disease of kidney failure patients from five tertiary-care centers in Jakarta. Methods: This is a multicenter, cross-sectional study of kidney failure patients receiving kidney replacement therapy (KRT), from December 2021 to July 2022. We recruited patients aged >18 years, had been receiving dialysis for at least three months or a kidney transplantation. Findings: This study included 1,152 patients treated with hemodialysis (68.1%), peritoneal dialysis (7.5%), and kidney transplantation (24.4%). At the start of KRT, the median (interquartile-range [IQR]) age was 48 [37–58] years with low eGFR (median [IQR]: 5.9 [4.0–8.34] ml/minute/1.73 m2). Hypertension was the main comorbidity (74.2%), followed by diabetes mellitus (30.1%). The major primary kidney disease was diabetic kidney disease (27.2%), followed by glomerulonephritis (13.0%), hypertension (11.5%), and urolithiasis (10.3%). Lupus nephritis was the common underlying etiology of secondary glomerulonephritis (91%). A high rate of unknown cause (31.1%) was also observed. Conclusions: Our results suggest that diabetic kidney disease is the leading cause of kidney failure in Jakarta, followed by glomerulonephritis. This study highlights the need for a better approach on primary prevention of diabetes mellitus as well as to better recognize glomerulonephritis at earlier stage might have a significant impact on reduction of the rate of kidney failure in Indonesia.

Original languageEnglish
Article number36
JournalAnnals of Global Health
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • dialysis
  • etiology of kidney failure
  • kidney transplantation
  • multicenter
  • primary renal disease


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