Contemporary periodontal therapy has evolved to become more interdisciplinary and increasingly involves more complex treatments, including bone and soft-tissue regenerative procedures. Therapeutic options require an imaging modality or combination of techniques that are capable of providing a diagnostic osseous baseline and facilitating quantification of smaller increments of bony change, both loss and additive, which are comparable over time. Intra-oral and panoramic radiography are the modalities most commonly used to identify the location, quantify the amount and the pattern of alveolar bone loss and determine response to therapy. Cone-beam computed tomography imaging offers specific advantages for periodontal diagnosis in that three-dimensional images of dental and alveolar bone structures can be rendered with accuracy. Cone-beam computed tomography has been shown to be clinically efficacious in demonstrating localized defects, such as furcation involvement and intrabony vertical and buccal/lingual defects, and in assessing the effects of regenerative therapy. In these situations, limited-field-of-view, high-resolution protocols are indicated.