The effects of synbiotics on indoxyl sulphate level, constipation, and quality of life associated with constipation in chronic haemodialysis patients: a randomized controlled trial

Aida Lydia, Tities Anggraeni Indra, Aulia Rizka, Murdani Abdullah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Gut microbiota dysbiosis in patients with chronic kidney disease on haemodialysis (CKD-HD) creates an increase in proteolytic bacteria activity, leading to an increase in the production of uraemic toxins, such as indoxyl sulphate, worsening of constipation symptoms and reducing patients’ quality of life. Improving gut microbiota dysbiosis is expected to improve this condition. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of synbiotics on indoxyl sulphate levels, constipation symptoms, and constipation-related quality of life in haemodialysis patients. Methods: This was a double-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial with a parallel design involving haemodialysis patients. We included chronic haemodialysis patients with gastrointestinal complaints, difficulty defecating, faeces with hard consistency, or a bowel movement frequency of fewer than three times per week. Patients were randomly divided into two groups (synbiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium longum 5x109 CFU) and placebo) for 60 days of oral intervention. All participants, caregivers, and outcome assessors were blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome was a decrease in indoxyl sulphate toxin levels. Meanwhile, improvement in constipation symptoms (measured using the Patient Assessment of Constipation: Symptoms (PAC-SYM) questionnaire) and improvement in constipation-related quality of life (measured using the Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life (PAC-QOL) questionnaire) were assessed as secondary outcomes. Results: We included 60 patients (30 intervention; median age of 51.23 (13.57) years, 33.3% male; 30 control; median age of 52.33 (11.29) years, 36.7% male). There was no significant difference in terms of pre- and postintervention indoxyl sulphate toxin levels in the synbiotics group compared to the placebo group (p=0.438). This study found an improvement in constipation symptoms (p = 0.006) and constipation-related quality of life (p=0.001) after synbiotic administration. Conclusion: Two months of synbiotic supplementation did not lower indoxyl sulphate toxin levels. Nevertheless, it had a major effect in improving constipation and quality of life affected by constipation in patients undergoing chronic haemodialysis. Trial registration: NCT04527640 (date of first registration: 26/08/2020).

Original languageEnglish
Article number259
JournalBMC Nephrology
Volume23
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022

Keywords

  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Constipation
  • Haemodialysis
  • Indoxyl sulphate
  • Quality of life
  • Synbiotics

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