The effects of levonorgestrel implants on vascular endothelial growth factor expression in the endometrium

Tseng M. Lau, Biran Affandi, Peter A.W. Rogers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

66 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and the microvascular density of the endometrium were studied in Norplant users and normal controls, using immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed paraffin- embedded endometrial sections. The VEGF staining index was quantified using computerized image analysis. The VEGF staining index between stage of the menstrual cycle and between normal and Norplant endometria were compared. Norplant VEGF staining index was analysed for correlation with microvascular density, duration of Norplant use, the number of bleeding/spotting days in the reference period up to 90 days prior to biopsy, and the length of time since the last bleeding/spotting episode. The results showed that immunoreactive VEGF was detected predominantly in endometrial glands but weakly expressed in the stroma throughout the menstrual cycle, and also in Norplant users. Large variation in the VEGF staining index between individuals was observed and no significant difference in the VEGF staining index was detected between stages of the menstrual cycle for the glands and stroma. The glandular and stromal VEGF staining indices were significantly higher in Norplant than in normal endometrium (P <1 x 10-4). No correlation was found between the Norplant VEGF staining index and endometrial microvascular density, duration of Norplant use, the number of bleeding/spotting days in the reference period, and the length of time, since the last bleeding/spotting episode. The VEGF staining index was higher in glands than stroma for both normal and Norplant endometrium. The results suggest a differential control of endometrial glandular versus stromal VEGF expression, and possible positive effects of levonorgestrel on VEGF expression.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)57-63
Number of pages7
JournalMolecular Human Reproduction
Volume5
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1999

Keywords

  • Blood vessel
  • Breakthrough bleeding
  • Endometrium
  • Norplant
  • VEGF

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