The effects of feeding an Asian or Western diet on sperm numbers, sperm quality and serum hormone levels in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) injected with testosterone enanthate (TE) plus depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA)

N. Suhana, Sutyarso, Nukman Helwi Moeloek, O. Soeradi, S. Sri Sukmaniah, Jatna Supriatna

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11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of an Asian diet compared to a Western diet on sperm numbers and quality, and serum hormones in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) injected with testosterone enanthate (TE) plus depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). Thirty male monkeys were divided into three groups of ten animals each. The first group (control) was fed with standard diet 'monkey chow' (9% fat, 13% protein, 78% carbohydrate); the second group was fed an 'asian' diet (15% fat, 15% protein, 70% carbohydrate); the third group was fed a 'Western' diet (35% fat, 25% protein, 40% carbohydrate). These diets were administered from the beginning (adaptation) until the experiment was terminated. Three months after the adaptation period, all groups were injected with 20 mg TE (once per week) and 25 mg DMPA (once every 6 weeks) for 18 weeks, while TE injections were continued for another 6 weeks. There were no differences in sperm numbers and quality, or in hormone levels between the first and second groups. In both of these groups azoospermia was achieved in 100% of animals, while in the third group only 70% achieved azoospermia. In all 3 groups, spermatozoa were once again detectable by week 33. However, by the end of the study at week 39, sperm numbers in the first and second groups reached only severe oligozoospermia (two animals remained azoospermic in the first group) while in the third group, numbers had returned to normozoospermia. The quality of spermatozoa during and after the treatment in the third group was better than in the first and second groups. Hormone concentrations decreased more rapidly in both the first and second groups, compared to the third group, while the recovery period was slower in the first and second groups, compared to the third group. It is concluded that different formula diets result in differential decreases in sperm numbers and quality, and in hormone concentrations in M. fascicularis injected with TE in combination with DMPA. Animals fed with either monkey chow or an Asian diet exhibited more severe and prolonged decreases in these parameters than did animals fed with a Western diet.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)102-112
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Andrology
Volume22
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 29 Mar 1999

Keywords

  • Asian and Western diets
  • Hormone levels
  • Macaca fascicularis
  • Male contraception
  • Sperm quality and quantity
  • TE and DMPA

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