The Effects of Different Storage Conditions on Leukocytes in Human Breast Milk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: Breast milk is the best baby food because it contains various nutrients and important factors for the baby's immune system, including leukocytes. This study aimed to determine the effects on morphology, number of cells and breast milk leukocytes count of various ways of storing breast milk based on different temperatures and storage durations. Methods: This study was conducted at the Biochemistry Laboratory, Integrated Laboratory and the Histology Laboratory, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia from September 2022 to February 2023. Transitional breast milk samples from 7 breastfeeding mothers were utilised in the study. A total of 50 mL was divided into 4 tubes of 12.5 mL each and treated based on temperature, storage time and method of thawing frozen breast milk based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) recommendations for breast milk storage. The breast milk cells were isolated to calculate the cell number and leukocyte population. Subsequently, the breast milk cells were stained with haematoxylin and eosin to analyse the number and morphology of leukocytes. Results: The findings showed a significant decrease in the breast milk's total number and population and changes in the morphology of breast milk leukocytes after storage. Conclusion: This study indicates that CDC storage recommendations do not affect the quantity of the CD45+ leukocyte population; however, there is a decrease in the total number of leukocytes and alterations in their microscopic morphology. Thus, additional research is recommended to determine whether these modifications influence the function of the breast milk cells.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)91-98
Number of pages8
JournalSultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2024


  • Breast Milk Expression
  • Food Storage
  • Human Milk
  • Leukocytes
  • Population


Dive into the research topics of 'The Effects of Different Storage Conditions on Leukocytes in Human Breast Milk'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this