The effects of normal pulsed Nd-YAG laser irradiation on the acid resistance of human dental enamel of pits and fissures, the cleaning of the pit and fissure contents and fluoride uptake into deep pits and fissures were examined. The acid resistance of the pit and fissure enamel was evaluated by the amount of dissolved calcium per square millimeter of the surface area. The pit and fissure enamel treated with laser irradiation obtained an acid resistance 30% higher than that of the unlased controls. The cleaning effect of laser irradiation on the pit and fissure contents was compared with chemicomechanical and mechanical methods. The laser irradiation was found to clean the pits and fissures to a greater depth without alterating the shape of pits and fissures, compared with the other two methods. The distribution of calcium, phosphorus and fluoride in the enamel of the pits and fissures was then measured by electron probe microanalyzer. At the entrance and in the deep part of the pits and fissures, the fluoride content of the enamel treated with acidulated phosphate fluoride after laser irradiation was higher than that of the enamel treated with acidulated phosphate fluoride alone. These results thus suggest that Nd-YAG laser irradiation might be effective in increasing the acid resistance of the pit and fissure enamel, while removing the pit and fissure debris contents and increasing the fluoride uptake into the pit and fissure enamel.