The effect of altered physical activity on hypertension: a longitudinal study in Indonesia

Kholisotul Hikmah, Helda, Asri C. Adisasmita, Woro Riyadina, Dewi Kristanti

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A higher level of physical activity is widely recommended for the prevention of several Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and leads to a reduction of blood pressure in resistant hypertension as well. This study aimed to measure the estimated effect of altered physical activity on hypertension over the course of three years of observation. This longitudinal study was conducted on 3109 adults at baseline using The Cohort Study of NCDs Risk Factors. The investigation was conducted through interviews, self-reports and observations. Data were analyzed using the Generalized Estimating Equation. The results show that the highest proportion of hypertension based on observation time occurred among those with low physical activity and experienced a delta change of less than 100 MET-min/week, which was 24% at the third follow-up. The risk of hypertension was higher among those with low physical activity and unchanged in the second (RR=1,642; 0,922 – 8,224) and third years of follow-up (RR=3,607; 95% CI: 0,923 – 7,993) compared to those who had moderate-vigorous activity. A longer follow-up period led to higher risk estimation. Given the significant impact of inactivity, regular physical activity should therefore be recommended for all individuals at risk of hypertension, including office workers. A firm policy is needed to encourage workplace physical activity breaks, in both government and private sectors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)225-238
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Public Health and Development
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • altered physical activity
  • hypertension
  • longitudinal study


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