The development of a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis program in Indonesia

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Chronic kidney disease is prevalent in Indonesia, running at 2g.1% in the population at risk (hypertension, diabetes, and proteinuria). In a recent survey, the incidence rate for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was 30.7 per million population (pmp), and the prevalence rate was 23.4 pmp. In 2006, about 10 000 patients were being treated with hemodialysis. Nevertheless, many ESRD patients remained untreated. Financial problems, scarcity of dialysis facilities, and insufficient numbers of skilled health care providers were among reasons why renal replacement treatment is not so well developed in Indonesia. The continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) program begun in 1985 was slowly growing until an economic crisis in 1998. Afterward, with new development of CAPD and government support, the number of patients on CAPD increased. In the middle of 2007, CAPD patients numbered 774 in total Drop-out rates remained high, because of death, infection, and catheter failure. Almost all new CAPD patients are older than 35 years of age, and the technique is still costly: 51% of patients receive 4 daily exchanges, costing $6000 annually; the rest receive 3 daily exchanges, costing $4800 annually. Government insurance reimburses only 3 exchanges. Expensive drugs such as erythropoietin, intravenous iron, and vitamin D3 are not covered by insurance. The infection rate for the most recent year was 1 episode in 47.17 patient-months. The cost of antibiotic treatment to cure peritonitis is still expensive. Many patients experience some complication retated to catheter obstruction or hemorrhage. In Indonesia, CAPD is relatively new and just beginning to progress. In our archipelago, with its many islands and limited resources and investment, CAPD may be the better choice of therapy. More training is needed to increase the number of skilled and experienced doctors, nurses, and other CAPD team members. We hope that CAPD can be made more affordabte for ESRD patients.

Original languageEnglish
JournalPeritoneal Dialysis International
Issue numberSUPP. 3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2008


  • Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
  • Developing country
  • End-stage renal disease

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