The cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory potential of Tetragonula sapiens propolis from Sulawesi on raw 264.7 cell lines

Muhamad Sahlan, Kaysa Faradis Mahira, Diah Kartika Pratami, Rizal Rizal, Mohammad Javed Ansari, Khalid Mashay Al-Anazi, Mohammad Abul Farah

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14 Citations (Scopus)


Propolis is a naturally produced resinous mixture the bees are secreted through collecting resin of plants, buds, and exudates. According to several studies, propolis possessed various properties, one of which known as immunomodulatory property. Immunomodulatory property can be assessed and observed through the anti-inflammatory and cytotoxicity properties of propolis. In Indonesia, Tetragonula sapiens (T. sapiens) from Sulawesi is considered as one of the most commercial and productive bees. Despite of their productivity and commerciality, they have never been tested for their immunomodulatory property. In order to explore their potential even further, this present study was aimed to observe the anti-inflammatory and cytotoxicity properties of T. sapiens propolis from Sulawesi, Indonesia against RAW 264.7 cell lines. The cytotoxic assay of propolis against RAW264.7 cell lines was conducted using MTS assay. The anti-inflammatory properties were determined using LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages cells to measure inhibitory activity of propolis on production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nitric oxide (NO). The cytotoxic test results showed that propolis extract concentration affected the cell in terms of increasing or decreasing the cell viability. The results of the anti-inflammatory test disclosed that propolis at 120 µg/mL had an anti-inflammatory property which was evidenced by TNF-α levels of 304.28 ± 30.25 pg/mL, iNOS of 5.42 ± 0.82 ng/mL, and NO 101.09 ± 1.49 µmol/L. It can be concluded that the Indonesian propolis from T. sapiens possess anti-inflammatory properties related to the inhibition of NO production by macrophages.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101314
JournalJournal of King Saud University - Science
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021


  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Cytotoxicity
  • Immunomodulatory
  • Propolis
  • Tetragonula sapiens


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