The critical age and dentocraniofacial morphologic deviation in mouth breathing patients

Miesje Karmiati Purwanegara, Retno Hayati Sugiarto, Hartono Abdurachman, Bambang Sutrisna

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Obstruction of the upper respiratory structure at nose and pharynx may reduce air flow and will cause mouth breathing habit (MB). If this obstruction of upper respiratory tract (OURT) occurs for a long period of time during the development phase of a child will result morphologic deviation of the dentocraniofacial (DCF).Patients suffering from OURT usually have adenoid face and low self esteem. Purpose:To get the DCF morphology characteristic data of OURT patients and to determine the critical age when deviation of the DCF morphology occurs in patients of OURT. Methods:A cross sectional design study was done with189 case subjects, 96 control subjects, and 60 normal subjects. All subjects were divided into two groups, 9-12 years, and 12-15 years group. Data obtained from cephalometric analyzes and questionnaire. Result:DCF deviation of case group was shown at the angle of normal SNA, higher SNB (p 0.00), ANB (p 0.00), NA-APg (p 0.00), SN-SGn (p 0.00), and SN-GoGn (p 0.00),but lower Facial Ratio (p<0.05)and Bijugulare (p 0.045, only for age group 9-11 years). Age 8 was the critical point for the occurrence of dentocraniofacial deviation (DCF) in patients with OURT. DCF morphology characteristics of OURT subjects with MB showed vertical growth pattern, Class II Angle skeletal relation with convex facial profile, narrow Bijugulare, and critical age was 8 years where DCF deviation occurs in patients suffering from OURT.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)221-227
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of International Dental and Medical Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • Critical age
  • Dentocraniofacial (DCF)
  • Mouth breathing (MB)
  • Obstruction of the upper respiratory tract (OURT)


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