The changes of surface water characteristic as raw water source for water supply treatment plant in jakarta

Djoko Mulyo Hartono

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review


One of the objective in water supply management is providing the safety and healthy clean water and sufficient at anytime needed to the community. Nowadays, demand on water supply increases while the capacity of water treatment plant are remains constant as the consequences surface water and ground water become important alternatives. The main problem in water demand in urban environment is the poor of quality raw water, insufficient water quantity and noncontiguous of clean water distribution which puts many low income communities at risk to water diseases. Treatment Plant in Indonesia have been constructed for 20 and 40 years ago, with the criteria design implemented is conventional treatment plan. The design of the treatment plant is based on raw water characteristic condition in 20 or 40 years ago so that need some modification in the design. Raw water source mainly comes from surface water, which is being worst in quality as well as quantity. Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia, is facing water supply problem like other cities in Indonesia. Based on Municipal Water Supply Jakarta (PAM Jaya), water demand in DKI is around 27806 liter/second and total production of water is around 12235 liter/second or 48% of total demand of water supply. Production of water mostly comes from surface water which is treated in water treatment plant. Although very small amount distributed from spring water, the rest of the community used ground water to support their need of water supply. Due to the fact that Water Supply in DKI Jakarta could not supply all population, ground water source will be an important alternative to accommodate the need of water supply in Jakarta. The exploration on ground water source is used by continuous pumping which various from small until large scale of capacity of pump which will cause many impact to the environment. This exploration not only for domestic water supply needed but also for industrial as well as other commercial purposes. In fact, the water treatment plan effectiveness is decreasing and needs some adjustment in line with current quality standard. The treatment is designed to treat raw water with has parameter of water quality on the certain level, and most cases the parameter are exceeding the limit standard, as the result the water produced to consumer is not meet with the consumer expected as well as national or international standard. The regulations to protect water resources has been established and socialization on water pollution control to the community has done regularly. The main output of this study is to propose alternative solution to improve water supply services to the community in maintaining and rehabilitation the quality of water production from water supply treatment plant of surface water as raw water source. Observation on water quality parameter source of Water Intake Buaran from year 2003 until year 2006 shows that there are 8 parameter are exceeding water quality standard, turbidity, BOD, Iron, COD, Ammonia, Manganese, Suspended Solid and Total Coli form. Among 8 parameters, turbidity is the highest number of concentration exceed the criteria standard which had set up before construction and in the past, turbidity was used as the primary parameter in design water treatment plant. The concentration on turbidity can be seen on Figure 1 below during 2003 - 2006, whereas criteria design for water treatment plant is 100 mg/l. In the current situation, water quality is changed, which need effort to redesign or to improve effectiveness of water treatment plant. Several option to solve this problem is concerning with maintenance and rehabilitation not only the sediment along the river, but also alternative technology to reduce. More overt the other important thing is coordination among institution or parties involving in water supply.

Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 2008
Event11th East Asia-Pacific Conference on Structural Engineering and Construction, EASEC-11 - Taipei, Taiwan, Province of China
Duration: 19 Nov 200821 Nov 2008


Conference11th East Asia-Pacific Conference on Structural Engineering and Construction, EASEC-11
Country/TerritoryTaiwan, Province of China


  • Alternative technology
  • Characteristic of raw water
  • Quality standard
  • Turbidity
  • Water treatment plant


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