Background and aims: At the same BMI, Asian populations develop cardiometabolic complications earlier than Western populations. We hypothesized that a different secretion of the adipocyte-derived hormones leptin and adiponectin plays a role and investigated the associations of the two hormones with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in an Indonesian and a Dutch population. Methods and results: We performed cross-sectional analyses of the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity Study (n = 6602) and the SUGAR Scientific Programme Indonesia–Netherlands Study (n = 1461). We examined sex-stratified associations of leptin and adiponectin with MetS, using multivariate logistic regression including adjustment for total body fat. The mean (SD) leptin (mcg/L) were 4.7 (6.0) in Indonesian men, 18.6 (12.0) in Indonesian women, 9.1 (7.7) in Dutch men, and 23.4 (17.4) in Dutch women. The mean (SD) adiponectin (mg/L) were 5.7 (5.4), 7.5 (7.1), 6.6 (3.3), and 11.3 (4.9), respectively. Within the same BMI category, leptin concentrations were similar in the two populations, whereas adiponectin was lower in the Indonesian population. Per SD of leptin, adjusted prevalence odds ratios (ORs, 95%CI) of MetS were 0.9 (0.6–1.2) in Indonesian men, 1.1 (0.9–1.4) in Indonesian women, 2.2 (1.6–2.8) in Dutch men, and 1.2 (1.0–1.5) in Dutch women. Per SD of adiponectin, the ORs were 0.9 (0.7–1.2), 0.8 (0.7–1.0), 0.6 (0.6–0.8), and 0.4 (0.4–0.5), respectively. Conclusions: Despite lower adiponectin levels, adiponectin was not related to the MetS in the Indonesian population and can not explain their increased cardiometabolic risk at the same BMI.
- The metabolic syndrome (MetS)
- Total body fat