The analysis of the El Niño phenomenon in the East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia

Mahawan Karuniasa, Priyaji Agung Pambudi

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Climate change causes various events, such as El Niño, and we experience their larger frequency. This study based on a quantitative approach uses observation data from the Umbu Mehang Kunda Meteorological Station and the Ocean Niño Index (ONI). As a result, East Sumba, which has an arid climate, has more challenges in dealing with drought and water deficits during El Niño. This study identifies rainfall when the El Niño phenomenon takes place in East Sumba through data contributing to the ONI value and dry day series from 1982 to 2019. The analysis was carried out by reviewing these data descriptively and supported by previous literature studies. The research found that there was a decrease in the accumulative total rainfall in El Niño years. The annual rainfall in the last six El Niño events is lower than the annual rainfall in the first six El Niño events. The dry day series is dominated by an extreme drought (>60 days) which generally occurs from July to October. This drought clearly has a major impact on livelihoods and causes difficulties in agriculture as well as access to freshwater. This results in crop failure, food shortages, and decreased income. The phenomenon triggers price inflation in the market and potential increase in poverty, hunger, and pushes the country further away from the first and second Sustainable Development Goals. This phenomenon and problems related to it need to be dealt with by multistakeholders.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)180-185
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Water and Land Development
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • climate
  • communities
  • drought
  • El Niño
  • freshwater
  • rainfall


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