Background and aims: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of liver cancer, is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide with an inferior prognosis. In Indonesia, the average life expectancy is less than 5 months, with most patients being in an advanced stage wherein the survival rate is very low. Early detection through surveillance program is very crucial. HCC guidelines worldwide have provided surveillance recommendation through the examination of α-fetoprotein (AFP) and ultrasound for patients at risk in developing HCC. However, there have been some controversies regarding the usage of AFP concerning its low sensitivity and specificity in detecting HCC. Therefore, the effectiveness of AFP in the surveillance of HCC patients and identifying the parameters most associated with the increase of AFP ≥ 10 ng/ml in Indonesia should be evaluated. Methods: We analyzed medical records of HCC patients and those at high risk of developing HCC through cross-sectional study, including patients with cirrhosis and hepatitis B and C, from 2015 to 2017 who underwent treatment at the Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital and Dharmais National Cancer Hospital, Indonesia. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of AFP in the surveillance of HCC in Indonesia with a cut-off of 10 ng/ml were 82.6 and 71.2%, respectively. The parameters most associated with the increase of AFP ≥10 ng/ml according to multivariate analysis were the etiology of hepatitis B, the stage of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) B and C, and the presence of cirrhosis, respectively. Conclusion: AFP can still be used in the surveillance of HCC in Indonesia for its high sensitivity value.
- Hepatocellular carcinoma