Background: In 2019, ever-smoking prevalence among adults in Indonesia was 32.8%, which may correlate with a high burden on the economy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to estimate the economic costs of tobacco use, which are crucial for policymakers in planning healthcare provisions and other public expenditures. Methods: We follow the WHO standard approach, multiplying the sum of the direct and indirect costs with the smoking-attributable fraction. Direct costs include healthcare and non-healthcare costs. Indirect costs include the loss of productivity resulting from absence from work and premature death due to smoking-related illnesses. Findings: We found that the 2019 economic cost of smoking ranges from Rp 184.36 trillion to Rp 410.76 trillion (1.16%-2.59% of the gross domestic product). This research found a similar economic cost of smoking compared with a previous estimate conducted by Kosen et al of Rp 438.5 trillion. However, the estimated direct cost of smoking ranges from Rp 17.9 trillion to Rp 27.7 trillion, which is higher than the estimate of Rp 15.5 trillion by Kosen et al. Badan Penyelenggara Jaminan Sosial Kesehatan allocated between Rp 10.4 trillion and Rp 15.6 trillion to cover the healthcare costs attributable to smoking, representing between 61.2% and 91.8% of the 2019 deficit. Conclusions: The vast economic cost of smoking is a waste of resources and a burden on Indonesia's National Health Insurance System. Therefore, the government must increase cigarette taxes to correct the negative externalities of smoking consumption.
|Publication status||Accepted/In press - 8 Mar 2022|
- public policy
- smoking caused disease