Techno-economic analysis of natural gas distribution using a small-scale liquefied natural gas carrier

Muhammad Arif Budiyanto, Gerry Liston Putra, Achmad Riadi, Gunawan, Apri Melianes Febri, Gerasimos Theotokatos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The design of the gas distribution for small-demand power plants located on remote islands is logistically challenging. The use of small-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG) vessels can be an option for these logistic problems. This paper aims to conduct a techno-economic analysis of using small-scale LNG vessels for gas distribution to the power plants that are spread across different islands. Route optimisation has been conducted using the capacitated vehicle routing problem method. The ship’s principal dimensions were determined using the aspect ratio from a linear regression of existing small-scale LNG vessels. As a case study, the gas demands for a gas power plant in eastern Indonesia were analysed into four distribution clusters. The results of the techno-economic analysis showed that the four distribution clusters have different characteristics regarding the LNG requirements, location characteristics and ship specifications. The capacity of small-scale LNG vessels feasible in terms of technical aspects varies from 2500, 5000, to > 10,000 m3 with variations in the ship speed depending on the location of the power plants. The amount of cargo requested and the shipping distance was affected to the cost of LNG transportation. The economic assessment proposes that the feasible investment by considering small-scale LNG cargo distribution, from the case study shows that with a ship capacity of 5000 m3 feasible margin rate is ≥ 3 USD/metric million British thermal units with an internal rate of return of 10% and estimated payback period is less than 15 years.

Original languageEnglish
Article number22900
JournalScientific reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023


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