Techno-Economic Analysis of Combined Gas and Steam Propulsion System of Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier

Muhammad Arif Budiyanto, Gerry Liston Putra, Achmad Riadi, Riezqa Andika, Sultan Alif Zidane, Andi Haris Muhammad, Gerasimos Theotokatos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Various combinations of ship propulsion systems have been developed with low-carbon-emission technologies to meet regulations and policies related to climate change, one of which is the combined gas turbine and steam turbine integrated electric drive system (COGES), which is claimed to be a promising ship propulsion system for the future. The objective of this paper is to perform a techno-economic and environmental assessment of the COGES propulsion system applied to liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers. A propulsion system design for a 7500 m3 LNG carrier was evaluated through the thermodynamics approach of the energy system. Subsequently, carbon emissions and environmental impact analyses were carried out through a life cycle assessment based on the power and fuel input of the system. Afterwards, a techno-economic analysis was carried out by considering the use of boil-off gas for fuel and additional income from carbon emission incentives. The proposed propulsion system design produces 1832 kilowatts of power for a service speed of 12 knots with the total efficiency of the system in the range of 30.1%. The results of the environmental evaluation resulted an overall environmental impact of 10.01 mPts/s. The results of the economic evaluation resulted in a positive net present value and a logical payback period for investment within 8 years of operation. The impact of this result shows that the COGES has a promising technological commercial application as an environmentally friendly propulsion system. Last, for the economy of the propulsion system, the COGES design has a positive net present value, an internal rate return in the range of 12–18%, and a payback period between 6 and 8 years, depending on the charter rate of the LNG carrier.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1415
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024


  • boil-off gas utilization
  • energy system
  • LNG


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